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Plant Parts

Plant parts are the different part of the plant, which are used for various purposes. It may be any part i.e. aerial or underground including herb plant seeds, plants bark, herbal flowers, herb roots etc. Each plant part possesses individual beneficial property, which is used as required. The aerial part of plant includes stem, leave, flowers, fruits and seeds and that of underground includes roots and rhizomes. These parts are used in as such or in several other forms like powder or oil or extracts or paste or decoction depending on the requirement.

Bark is the outer covering of the stem, branches and roots of the tree. The bark is an aggregation of organs and tissues that includes phloem and secondarily thickened tissues from the secondary plant body, as well as epidermis, cortex and phloem derived from the primary plant body.

Flowers are the reproductive part of most the plants. It consists of carpels, petals, sepals and stamens. Flowers have either both male-female reproductive parts (Perfect flowers) or only one of them (Imperfect flowers). It is of various shape, size and colors.

A fruit is a part of a flowering plant that contains the seeds. It may include adjacent tissue that fuses with the ovary. Once the ovary is fertilized, the seeds develop and the ovary enlarges forming the mature fruit. It may be of different type but not all are edible.

Natural gums are polysaccharides of natural origin. It is a sticky jelly like mass. It is used to increase viscosity of solution. It mainly used as thickening agent, gelling agent, emulsifiers and stabilizers.

Plant resins are simply secretions of plants, obtain either from the entire plant, or from specific parts of the plant. Resin mainly consists of volatile terpenes, along with essential oils and gums in little amount. Resins are insoluble in water and soluble in alcohol.

Boswellia SerrataFerula FoetidaGuggul
Pinus Roxburghii

Leaves are lateral outgrowths from the stem, most commonly flat, broad, and green. This maximizes their function of absorbing sunlight and transforming it into food. leave have evolved into many shapes and sizes, reflecting adaptations to the environment.

Volatile concentrated hydrophobic liquid extracted from different parts of plants, usually having the characteristic odor or flavor of the plant.

Peel/ Hull
Peel is the outer protective layer of fruits and vegetables. Peel may be eaten or removed from fruit according to thickness and taste. It is used in confectionery and cosmetics industry. Hull is outer leafy covering of seeds.

Roots are underground plant parts, which obtain nutrients i.e. food and water from the soil and provide support by anchoring the plant. Roots consist of root hairs and root cap. They also store sugars and carbohydrates, which is utilized by the plant to carry out other functions.

Rhizomes are thick, horizontal, underground stem capable of producing the shoot and root systems of a new plant. Rhizomes grow close to soil and have nodes and scale like leave. This capability allows the parent plant to propagate vegetatively (asexually) and also enables a plant to perinnate (survive an annual unfavorable season) underground.

Seed is the reproductive part of the plant. It is a ripened ovule, consisting of an embryo with one or more integument, or coverings. The seed proper has an outer and an inner coat, and within these the kernel or nucleus.

Stem is the axis of a plant, which is generally upright and above ground, easy to locate and identify. However, many stems grow below ground or are ground hugging. They support the plant, and act like the plant's plumbing system, conducting water and nutrients from the roots and food in the form of glucose from the leaves to other plant parts.

Wood is the secondary xylem of dicots and gymnosperms. It is the hard fibrous, lignified substance present under the bark of the tree. It is mainly utilized in the building materials or furniture or for papermaking.

Whole Plant
Whole plant are all aerial parts of the plant, almost all parts of the same plant like stem, bark, leaves, flowers, fruits and seeds with their different properties are medicinally useful.

These are the liquid substances which ooze out from the plant pores and gets solidified when exposed to air. Chemically these are either silica or polysaccharides or terpenes or any other chemical which are medicinally useful.

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